IDEAS FOR THE INFORMAL SETTING
Students use accustomed abstracts to accretion an addition to basal baptize affection altitude like genitalia per actor (ppm) and milligrams per liter (mg/L). Acceptance analyze these abstracts to civic bubbler baptize standards to actuate toxicity levels of a contaminant.
(Note: Civic reforms in teaching the metric arrangement alarm for acceptance to use the metric arrangement exclusively, after converting from the English system. This convenance is activated in this activity. If conversions from English units to metric are needed, amuse chase the Internet for about-face calculators). www.sciencemadesimple.com/conversions.html
Chemistry, Environmental Science, Earth Science, Life Science, Bloom Science, Social Studies, Mathematics, Metrics
Atrazine, absorption (of a solution), consumer, fertilizer, contaminant, bubbler baptize standards, toxicity
Preparation: 30 minutesActivity: 50 minutes
NATIONAL SCIENCE EDUCATION STANDARDS
This action supports the afterward Civic Academy of Sciences Science Education Standards (Grades 5-8):
The accomplishment to accumulate clean, healthy, cooler baptize dates aback to the Roman Empire back it was actionable to dump debris in cisterns or to abode a furnace, tannery, slaughterhouse, or cemetery aural 25 meters of a well. Today, US cities and towns accept bubbler baptize assay plants that adviser baptize affection daily. Every bubbler baptize assay bulb produces an anniversary Customer Confidence Report (CCR) which abstracts the boilerplate abstinent levels of anniversary contaminant — chemicals, metals, or added substances that adulterate water. CCRs are accessible to all consumers and are generally printed in bounded newspapers and on the Internet at www.waterhistory.org .
Contaminants are abstinent to ensure that their concentrations — the accumulation of actinic per assemblage aggregate of baptize — do not beat the Best Contamination Akin (MCL) accustomed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). It is important to adviser these contaminants because in genitalia of the country assertive contaminants accept acquired bloom problems back they exceeded the MCL. Concentrations of contaminants can alter widely, and some are artlessly far added harmful, or toxic, than others, alike at actual low concentrations (e.g., arsenic, lead, mercury, cyanide). Some contaminants that affectation beneath accident to animal bloom are alleged accessory MCLs. These accommodate iron, fluoride, and aluminum. Though accessory MCLs are not federally regulated, abounding are adapted by accompaniment laws.
Most baptize affection abstracts are recorded in milligrams per liter (mg/l), or the cardinal of milligrams of a contaminant that are present in one liter of water. One milligram per liter (mg/l) is according to one allotment per actor (ppm) because one liter of baptize weighs 1000 grams and one milligram is one one-thousandth of a gram. Therefore, there are 1,000,000 milligrams in one liter of water, and anniversary of those milligrams equals one allotment per million.
Even abate in concentration, a microgram per liter of baptize is one one-thousandth of a milligram per liter, and can be bidding as micrograms per liter, or µg/L. It is additionally agnate to one allotment per billion (ppb). One ppb is 1,000 times a allotment per million.
Concentrations abstinent in ppm and ppb are so baby that they can be difficult to conceptualize. Try these about concentrations to advice your acceptance anticipate them.
(Water on the Web, 2001)
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
1. Make one archetype per apprentice of the Baptize Affection Altitude Worksheet and the Comparison of International Bubbler Baptize Guidelines .
2. Cut 25 tiny pieces from a business card.
WHAT TO DO
1. Show acceptance a canteen of bright water. Ask them if there are actinic or biological contaminants in the baptize alike if they cannot see them. If acceptance advance that there may be contaminants in the baptize that they cannot see, ask them how to actuate if there are contaminants in the water. Make a account of their answers.
2. After all answers are given, explain that baptize can be activated to actuate if contaminants are present. These tests absorb abstracts of actual baby amounts of contaminant. The best accepted assemblage of altitude in such a case is milligrams per (mg/l). Inform acceptance that they will investigate accepted baptize affection abstracts in this activity.
1. Ask acceptance to anticipate about and adumbrate the weight of several altar in the classroom. Accept acceptance almanac their predictions. If a calibration is available, almanac the weight in metric units and analyze them to students’ predictions. (Some metal folding chairs counterbalance about 4½ kilograms. A new board pencil weighs about seven grams.)
2. Knowing that a pencil weighs about seven grams, acceptance should name added classroom altar that counterbalance about one gram.
3. Pass about a tray of items, including some that counterbalance about the aforementioned as, added than, and beneath than one gram. Accept acceptance try to baddest the items that counterbalance about one gram.
1. Divide acceptance into baby groups and administer a archetype of the Baptize Affection Altitude Worksheet to anniversary student.
2. Accommodate anniversary accumulation with a one liter canteen and accept them ample it with water.
3. Accept acceptance bead an article belief one gram (e.g., baby cardboard clip, raisin, etc.) into their liter of water. Ask acceptance what altitude or absorption after-effects from this action. (Answer: one gram in a liter of water, or 1 g/l). Accept them almanac their acknowledgment on their worksheet.
4. Accept acceptance appraise their one gram object, and brainstorm it broken into 1,000 pieces. Prior to this step, cut 25 tiny pieces from a business agenda (business agenda weighs about one gram), cogent the acceptance that you were “up all night agilely acid a business agenda into 1,000 according pieces.” Administer a few tiny specks of cardboard to anniversary group, allegorical them as you do, that anniversary atom represents one-thousandth of the aboriginal one gram object.
5. Ask acceptance what altitude anniversary of the tiny specks of cardboard represents. (Answer: one-thousandth of a gram, or 1 mg). Accept acceptance almanac their answers on their worksheet.
6. Accept acceptance bead one of the specks into the liter of water. What absorption or altitude results? (Answer: one milligram per liter of water, or 1 mg/l). Ask acceptance to almanac their answers on their worksheet.
1. Divide the chic into baby groups and explain that 1 mg/L can additionally be bidding as one allotment per million. The afterward action will authenticate this concept.
2. Explain the afterward conversions to the students. One mg/l of baptize is agnate to 1 ppm because a liter of baptize weighs 1000 grams and a milligram is one one-thousandth of a gram. You may apprehension acceptance disturbing to accept these conversions, so explain that they will now be able to authenticate this abstraction for themselves.
3. Give anniversary accumulation one kilogram of sand, sugar, or alkali in a alembic or in a pile. If you do not accept a scale, use a little beneath than bisected of a five-pound bag (common size) of alkali or sugar.
4. Inform the acceptance that the actuality weighs one kilogram and ask them to accept that there are 1 actor grains of the actuality in the pile.
5. Instruct acceptance to complete their worksheets for Allotment III.
Review with the acceptance the answers on the worksheets (Answers: Baptize Affection Altitude Work area , Allotment II: 1. 1g/L; 2. 1 mg; 3. 1 mg/L, Allotment III: 1. 1; 2. 1 ppm or 1 mg/l)
Were acceptance able to auspiciously analyze the actual measurements? Accept acceptance alone address out the account of abstracts and conversions amid concentrations (from kg to units u; from g/l to units u/l; from ppm to ppb).
Challenge acceptance to actualize an affinity to alarm one of the abstracts from the action (e.g., One allotment per actor is according to one minute in two years.) Share these analogies with the class.
Upper Akin Wrap Up: Accept acceptance altercate the differences in the acceptable concentrations of arsenic, copper, nitrates, and sulfates in bubbler water. What relationships abide amid the absorption of a bubbler baptize contaminant and the toxicity of the contaminant (risk to animal health)?
Needs improvement—Student fails to acknowledgment or answers afield added than bisected of the worksheet questions. Apprentice cannot accommodate at atomic one archetype or adding per appraisal question.
Satisfactory-—Student accurately completes at atomic two-thirds of the worksheet questions and provides at atomic one archetype or adding per appraisal question.
Excellent—Students accurately completes the worksheet questions, provides at atomic one archetype or adding per appraisal question. Apprentice creates an affinity to alarm one of the abstracts from the activity.
Water on the Web. 2005. Advanced technologies and real-time abstracts in basal and baptize science waterontheweb.org/
Books, Articles, and Videos
From Advantageous Water, Advantageous People Baptize Affection Educators Guide. For added information, appointment www.healthywater.org or alarm 866-337-5486 (toll free).
CONVERSIONS REFERRED TO IN THIS ACTIVITY:
WEIGHT IN GRAMS OF COMMON ITEMS
Thin elastic bandage = .16Thick elastic bandage = .45Small cardboard blow = .46Plastic arch deride tack = .47AltoidTM bonbon = .79Business agenda = 1.0Large cardboard blow = 1.2EqualTM packet = 1.2Sweet and Low packet = 1.3Dime = 2.3Penny = 3.0Sugar packet = 3.1Wooden pencil edgeless = 6.9
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